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A number is a concept from mathematics, used to count or measure. Depending on the field of mathematics, where numbers are used, there are different definitions. People use symbols to represent numbers, they call them numerals. Common places where numerals are used are for labelling, for example as telephone numbers. for ordering, as in serial numbers or to put a unique identifier (ISBN is a unique number that can identify a book)

Cardinal numbers are used to measure how big a set is (0, 1, 2,..)

Ordinal numbers are used to specify a certain element in a set or sequence. (First, Second, Third)          Numbers are also used for other things besides counting. Numbers are used when things are measured. Numbers are used to study how the world works. Mathematics is a way to use numbers to learn about the world and make things.

There are different ways of giving symbols to numbers. These methods are called number systems. The most common number system that people use is the base ten number system. The base ten number system is also called the decimal number system. The base ten number system is common because people have ten fingers and ten toes. There are 10 different symbols {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} used in the base ten number system. These ten symbols are called digits.

A symbol for a number is made up of these ten digits. The position of the digits shows how big the number is. For example, the number 23 in the decimal number system really means 2 times 10 plus 3, and 101 means 1 times a hundred (=100) plus 0 times 10 (=0) plus 1 times 1 (=1).